2017/08/07

科学者の出す statement は robust でなければならない

Robust とは

ツイッターを見てみると,某サイエンスライターさんがまだ暴れているようで暗澹たる気分になる。2 つ関連リンクを貼っておく。


ウエスタンに関しては,私は断然 2 番の「一研究者・教育者」さんを支持するが,それ以前の問題は,でかい statement を出しておきながら,その解釈に読者の「常識」を求めるという考え方だ。

科学者にとって重要なことだと思うのだが,個人攻撃をするのも大人気ないので,他の例で考えてみたい。

DNA コンピューターを開発している研究者が,テレビに出て「3 年後には,従来のタイプのコンピューターはなくなると思いますね」と言ったとする。人々は,DNA コンピューターが実用化のレベルに達し,市場のほとんどを占めるようになると解釈する。しかし,3 年経っても一向に DNA コンピューターが発売されない。批判を受けた研究者は,「いやいや,常識で考えて下さいよ。あれは,私のラボでは従来のコンピューターを使わなくなるという意味ですよ」。

新しい細胞初期化の方法を開発した研究者が,「夢の若返りも実現できるかもしれません」と言ったとする。突っ込まれると,発言を訂正する代わりに「あれは細胞の分裂可能回数が増えるということですよ。」という・・・

つまり,あとから条件を限定するというのがフェアじゃないのだ。これが,古典的な科学者が保守的な物言いしかできないとされる理由である。最近の傾向はちょっと違うようだけど,私は従来の態度の方が好ましいと思う。色々と条件が変わっても主張の内容を変えなくてもよい状態を robust という。実験系,統計手法を表現する言葉としても頻繁に用いられる。

What does 'Robust' mean
Robust is a characteristic describing a model's, test's or system's ability to effectively perform while its variables or assumptions are altered, so a robust concept can operate without failure under a variety of conditions.

Read more: Robust http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/robust.asp#ixzz4p4wI4Lal 
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論文は robust な文章から始める

Robust であることは,論文の書き方にも通じる原則だ。右サイトバーの Ultrabem 3 のリンク先に「英語論文の書き方」という項目がある ので,そちらも参照してもらいたい。ページの内容はまだ発展途中だが。

Introduction を書く場合,大きな statement から始めて,徐々に内容を絞っていくというのが一般的である。手持ちの論文の Introduction の最初のセンテンスを見てみよう。私の場合,近くにあったのが

  • Fatty acids (FAs) are essential molecules with multiple biological functions; (Genes Dev 27, 459-489, 2013)
  • The histological, molecular, and biochemical complexities of the mammalian brain present a serious challenge for mechanistic studies of brain development, function, and dysfunction. (Cell 135, 749-762, 2008)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocysts, have the ability to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency and the ability to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers (ref). (Cell 126, 663-676)

どの文章も,非常に robust であることがわかるだろう。議論を進めて行っても,最初の statement に対する例外が出てこないということだ。

この場合は,要するに論理構築のスキルの問題。一般的な statement に対しては,科学者としての誠意の問題。

「常識」に関する経験談とまとめ

上の例のように対象を限定しない statement を出す場合は,読者に対象を限定させる負担を強いることになる。これは情報を発信する側としてはとても不親切である。読者の大多数が自分と同じ「常識」をもっていると確信できない場合には,不用意に大きな statement を出すことは避けるべきだと思う。

バイオ系研究者の場合,「常識」というのは分野やラボによって大きく違ってくる。私は,研究者は若いうちに分野を変える経験をするべきだと考えているが,これは複数の「常識」があることを体験する方がいいと考えているためである。

ひとつ経験談を載せておこう。ある論文のドラフトを共著者に送ったとき,アメリカの若いポスドクに上から目線でめちゃくちゃ細かい指摘をされて困ったことがある。たとえば,私は P < 0.05 のように書いていたのだが,これは 「P = 0.03 のように実際の P 値を示さなければならない」という指摘。You really should.... という表現だった。

確かに P 値を実際に示す方がベターだと思う。しかし,投稿しようとしているジャーナルでは P < 0.05 という書き方が主流で,P = 0.03 のようにしている論文はほとんどなかった。つまり,ジャーナルの常識とそのポスドクの常識が違っていたということだ。

ここで「P 値を書いた方が informative ですよ」と言われるなら「そうかもな」という気分になる。しかし You really should とか言われると,それはそのポスドクが投稿先のジャーナルの論文を読み込んでいないということを示唆してしまい,その人の見識が疑われる事態にもなってしまう。

Robust でない断定的な物言いというのは,こうやって自分に跳ね返ってくることがある。私は,科学者は論理のプロであるべきだと思っているので,安易な表現をしないように気をつけたい。


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